How much was Albert Einstein worth?
|Net Worth:||$1 Million|
|Date of Birth:||March 14, 1879|
Who Is Albert Einstein
Hermann Einstein, a featherbed salesman who later ran an electrochemical works and Pauline Koch were married in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, Germany. Their son, Albert was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. Six weeks after Albert’s birth, the family moved to Munich.
Albert later in life related the story that at age five, his father showed him a pocket compass. Young Einstein realized that something in “empty” space affected the needle. He said the experience was one of the most revelatory of his life.
About a year later, Albert’s education began. Besides the violin lessons his mother insisted on, he also received religious education at home. Two years later, he began school at the Luitpold Gymnasium and after that, his religious training was also taught there.
Although he was clever and built models and mechanical devices for fun, he was also considered a slow learner. It’s possible he was dyslexic, or it could have been just shyness. He was good mathematics, in particular the calculus, and did not fail these subjects as has been often reported.
In 1894, the Einsteins moved to Italy, but Albert stayed in Munich. The following year, he failed an exam, which determined whether he could study for a diploma in electrical engineering at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich. In 1896, he renounced his German citizenship, not becoming a citizen of any other country until 1901. Also in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics, receiving his degree in 1900.
After trying unsuccessfully to obtain employment at Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule and other universities, he finally took a temporary job as a mathematics teacher at the Technical High School in Winterthur. This was followed by another temporary position teaching in a private school in Schaffhausen. Finally, the father of a friend helped him find a position as a technical expert third class at the patent office in Bern. He held this job from 1902 to 1909, receiving a promotion to technical expert second class in 1906.
Albert and Mileva Maric, a mathematician, had a daughter Lieserl, born in January, 1902. (What eventually happened to Lieserl is not know. It’s possible she died in infancy or was put up for adoption.) The couple wasn’t married until 1903. On May 14, 1904, the couple’s first son, Hans Albert Einstein was born. (Hans eventually became a professor of hydraulic engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He had very little interaction with his father.)
It was during these years when his prolific writing of theoretical physics publications began. He also earned a doctorate from the University of Zurich in 1905 for a thesis On a new determination of molecular dimensions.
The first of Albert Einstein’s three 1905 papers looked at a phenomenon discovered by Max Planck. Planck’s discovery indicated that electromagnetic energy seemed to be emitted from radiating objects in discrete quantities. This energy was directly proportional to the frequency of the radiation. Previously, Maxwell’s equations and the laws of thermodynamics assumed that electromagnetic energy consisted of waves which could contain any small amount of energy. Einstein’s paper used Planck’s quantum hypothesis for the description of the electromagnetic radiation of light.
Einstein’s second 1905 paper laid the groundwork for what would eventually become Einstein’s best known legacy, the special theory of relativity. Using a reinterpretation of the classical principle of relativity, which said that the laws of physics had to have the same form in any frame of reference, Einstein proposed that the speed of light remained constant in all frames of reference, as required by Maxwell’s theory. Later that year, as an extension of his theory of relativity, Einstein showed how mass and energy were equivalent. While not the first to propose all the components of special theory of relativity, he was the first to unite important parts of classical mechanics and Maxwell’s electrodynamics.
His final paper of that important year dealt with statistical mechanics.
In 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne and in 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich. Albert and Mileva had a second son, Eduard, born on July 28, 1910. (Eduard was later institutionalized for schizophrenia and died in an asylum.)
This was followed in 1911 by Professor of Theoretical Physics at Karl-Ferdinand University in Prague. That same year, he was able to make preliminary predictions about how a ray of light from a distant star, passing near the Sun, would appear to be bent slightly, in the direction of the Sun, leading to the first experimental evidence in favor of his theory.
The following year, he moved Prague to Zurich the following year to accept a chair at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule in Zurich. It also began a new phase in his gravitational research, with the help of mathematician friend Marcel Grossmann. He called his new work the general relativity theory, which he was able to publish in 1915.
In 1914 he became a German citizen and was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. The Einsteins divorced on February 14, 1919. Albert then married his cousin Elsa Loewenthal on June 2 of that year.
The Nobel Prize he received in 1921 was not for his relativity theories, but for 1905 work on the photoelectric effect. Other honors he received during these years include the Coley Medal of the Royal
Society in 1925 and the gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1926.
He remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to the United States, where he became Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940, but retained his Swiss citizenship. In 1944, as a contribution to the war effort, he hand wrote a copy of his 1905 paper on special relativity, which he put up for auction. This raised six million dollars and the manuscript now resides in the Library of Congress.
Albert Einstein retired from his post at Princeton in 1945. In 1952. after the death of the first president of Israel, the Israeli government offered the post of second president to Einstein, which he refused. On March 30, 1953, he released a revised unified field theory.
Einstein died on April 18, 1955 in Princeton, New Jersey. He was cremated at Trenton, New Jersey at 4 pm that same day and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed place.
11 Books about Albert Einstein & Relativity
Albert Einstein is one of the most compelling figures in all of physics, and there are a wide range of books that explore his life and scientific achievements. This list, by no means comprehensive, demonstrates some intriguing resources for learning more about Albert Einstein.
1. Einstein: His Life and Universe by Walter Isaacson
In Einstein: His Life and Universe, biographer and former Time Magazine managing editor Walter Isaacson explores the life of one of the most popular historical and scientific figures. Isaacson goes further than earlier biographers in exploring Einstein’s vast store of personal letters, most of which have not been explored in depth. This book goes beyond the science to portray the man who was Albert Einstein.
2. Why Does E=mc2? (and Why Do We Care?) by Brian Cox & Jeff Forshaw
One of the most fundamental concepts in modern physics is that of spacetime, which defines the environment in which all of physics takes place. The concept is not necessarily straightforward, though, and in this book physicists Brian Cox & Jeff Forshaw clearly address the complexities of this concept, and the bearing that it has on the rest of physics.
The real selling point of this book lies in the second part of the name. It really does address why people should care about E=mc2 and how it has an impact on the rest of physics. Most books focus on the technical aspects, without really paying close attention to the underlying meaning of the concepts, and Cox & Forshaw keep that meaning prominently placed on center stage throughout the book.
3. How to Teach Relativity to Your Dog by Chad Orzel
This book is a follow-up to Orzel’s well-received 2009 book How to Teach Physics to Your Dog. While the first book focused on quantum physics, Orzel now turns his explanatory powers to Einstein’s famous theory of relativity, attempting to present it in language that’s acceptable to even the lay reader (or the lay dog, for that matter).
4. Principle of Relativity by Albert Einstein
Though Einstein’s theory of relativity was revolutionary, it was not unprecedented. He built heavily on the work of Hendrik Lorentz, specifically in the Lorentz transformations that would allow transitions between inertial frames of reference.
This book, The Principle of Relativity, collects Einstein’s major papers together (including “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” which introduced relativity) with their predecessors by Lorentz as well as Herman Minkowski’s influential “Space and Time” and Hermann Weyl’s “Gravitation and Electricity.” It is a must-have collection of the most important early papers on relativity.
5. E = mc2: A Biography of the World’s Most Famous Equation by David Bodanis
David Bodanis writes about Einsten’s famous equation E = mc2; how it was developed and, ultimately, how it has affected the world. In his entertaining and informative style, he presents the work that preceded Einstein’s work in determining that mass and energy were intimately connected, exploring such personalities as James Clerk Maxwell, Michael Faraday, Antoine Lavoisier, Marie Curie, Enrico fermi, and others who paved the way for Einstein’s revelation, or refined it into a useful scientific application … and the most devastating weapon known to man.
6. Great Physicists by William H. Cropper
A collection of biographical essays about 30 prominent physicists, including Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newton, Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Richard P. Feynman, and Stephen Hawking. The essays explore both their life and their scientific achievements in a fair amount of depth and provide an intriguing overview of the development of scientific progress through the lives of these world-changing scientists.
7. Albert Meets America
Before the Beatles, before Marilyn Monroe, before J.F.K., there was … Albert Einstein.
This book, with the full title of Albert Meets America: How Journalists Treated Genius during Einstein’s 1921 Travels, is a historical exploration of Einstein as an emerging popular culture figure as he toured the United Supports to raise fund for a Zionist state. Jozsef Illy, visiting editor of the Einstein Papers, collects and annotates news articles and press releases from the trip to provide a compelling look at Einstein’s science, his Zionism, and the roller coaster ride that he received from a populace that barely understood what he was famous for … and some who hated to see a man of his ethnicity reach such a famous standing.
8. Einstein’s Jury: The Race to Test Relativity by Jeffrey Crelinsten
Einstein’s theory of relativity was groundbreaking – so groundbreaking, in fact, that many to this day question whether it could possibly describe reality. Imagine how strange it must have seemed when first presented. This book, Einstein’s Jury: The Race to Test Relativity by Jeffrey Crelinsten explores the controversial beginnings of relativity theory and how scientists set out to prove (or disprove) it. It’s fairly dense reading, but for someone who really wants to understand the development of relativity, it’s a very good resource.
9. From Galileo to Lorentz and Beyond by Joseph Levy, Ph.D.
Not everyone is on board with the common interpretations of Einstein’s relativity, and From Galileo to Lorentz and Beyond by Joseph Levy, Ph.D., is one book which explores an alternate theory of relativity. As Levy points out, even Einstein himself had some reservations about the implications of his life’s work. Levy explores these issues and proposes an alternate theory to explain the findings of relativity.
There is also a book on Einstein’s theory and associated theory titled, Pythagorean Physics, outlining the authors own brand of anti-relativism.
10. Edu-Manga – Albert Einstein
An educational manga series that gives biographies of influential and famous people throughout history, the Edu-Manga volume focusing on Albert Einstein does an excellent job of portraying him not only as a scientist, but also as a man who lived in interesting times. From his Zionist interests to his conflict with Germany to his role in the development of the nuclear bomb, Einstein is given as much weight as an individual as he is given as a scientist. The science is well portrayed, though there are a couple of minor historical inaccuracies … still, it’s well worth providing this book to a young person who has an interest in learning more about this great historical and scientific figure.
11. The Manga Guide to Relativity
This installment in the “Manga Guide” series focuses on the theory of relativity in the manga graphic storytelling format. The mathematics involved is at a level where someone with a strong background in high school geometry and algebra should feel comfortable, and the emphasis on the visual approach makes these concepts much more accessible than they could be when discussed in the abstract.